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Art Therapy: In-Text Citations

Art Therapy Counseling research help

Basic Guidelines for In-Text Citations

The following are basic guidelines for in-text citations taken from from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) and from the APA website.  They are also the most frequently-used for in-text citations.  For exception to the guidelines and more detailed information go to the APA Style Manual or the website.

Formatting In-Text Citations

1.  Direct Quotation.  If you are quoting from another author's work, quote word for word.  Include the author, the year, and the page number preceded by a "p."  Short quotations of 40 words or less are included within the text and enclosed with double quotation marks.  If a quotation is more than 40 words, use a block form of quotation, indented, and double-spaced.  (See pages 170-173 of the Style Manual.)

2.  Paraphrasing.  When paraphrasing a source, include the author and year as part of your citation.  It is best, but not required, to include the page number of the source.

One Work by One Author

The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text.  If the name of the author is part of the narrative, place the year in parentheses.  If the author's name if part of the narrative later in the same paragraph, the year is eliminated.  

            Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples....  Kessler also found in the same study...

If the author's name is not part of the narrative, the name and year are placed within parentheses.  In this case, the name and year are also both used in following citations in the same paragraph.

            Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003).  Kessler (2003) also found....

For more information go to pages 174-175 of the APA Style Manual.

One Work by Two Authors

Both names are cited in text.  When used in the narrative, the word "and" is used.  When used within parentheses, the ampersand (&) is used.

            ...as Kurtines and Szapocznik (2003) demonstrated....

            ...as has been demonstrated (Kurtines & Szapocznik, 2003).

See pages 174-177 of the APA Style Manual

One Work by Three, Four, or Five Authors

All authors are cited the first time in text.  After that, use only the first author, followed by et al. and omit the year from subsequent citations after the first nonparenthetical citation within a paragraph.  Include the year in subsequent citations if the first citation within a paragraph is parenthetical.

            Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found....(First citation in text).  Kisangau, et al. (2007) found...(Subsequent first citation per     paragraph).  

            ...as has been shown (Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, & Joseph, 2007).  Subsequent citations (Kisangau, et al., 2007).

See pages 174-177 of the APA Style Manual

One Work by Six or More Authors

Only the surname of the first author is cited, followed by et al. for the first and subsequent citations.

See pages 174-177 of the APA Style Manual

Groups as Authors

The names of groups such as associations or governmental agencies are usually spelled out each time they appear in a citation.  The names of some authors may be spelled out in the first citation and abbreviations used in subsequent citations.  If the name is long and difficult, and the abbreviation is understandable or familiar, the name may be abbreviated in the second and subsequent citations.

See pages 176-177 of the APA Style Manual

Authors With the Same Surname

If there are two or more primary authors (first authors) with the same last name, include the first author's initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs.

See page 176 of the APA Style Manual

Anonymous Author

If the author can not be identified, cite the first few words of the reference list entry and the year.  

See page 176 of the APA Style Manual.  More explanation is at the APA website.

Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses

Place the citations of two or more works within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list, and separate them with a semicolon.

...results in more severe pain (Kessler & Smithson, 1998; Mason, Kissinger, & Moore, 2003)

Place two or more works by the same author(s) (in the same order) by year of publication.  Give the last name once, and for each subsequent work give only the date.

Training materials are available (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2001, 2003)

Identify works by the same author(s) (in the same order) with the same publication date by using a, b, c, after the year. 

Several studies (Derryberry & Reed, 2005a, 2005b, in press-a; Rothbart 2003a, 2003b)

Put two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author's surname.

Several studies (Miller, 1999; Shafranske & Mahoney, 1998)

See pages 177-178 of the APA Style Manual.  Additional examples are at the APA website 

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are works cited in a text, but the original work was not read.  If Kessler's work was cited in Moran's work, but you did not read Kessler's original work, this is a secondary source.  

...Kessler's study (as cited in Moran, 2005)

See page 178 of the APA Style Manual

Personal Communications

Personal communications are interviews, telephone conservations, private letters or memos, emails, messages from discussion groups, etc.  They are cited in text only and are not placed in the reference list.

M. A. Kessler (personal communication, January 3, 2010)

See page 179 of the APA Style Manual.  Additional information is at the APA website.

"Frequently Asked Questions about APA Style" provides additional information, including citing from Facebook, Twitter, e-mail, website, and webpages.  

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